What Is The Role Of Assessment In Education – As students learn to read, educators and parents want to know if they are on the way to becoming successful readers. Assessments can help answer this question, but an abundance of formative, benchmark, screening, diagnostic, progress monitoring, and outcomes terms confuse educators and parents and often lead to over-testing. The solution is an effective framework, where the purpose of each assessment is clearly defined.
In a recent infographic, the Southeast Regional Education Laboratory (REL) presented an effective assessment system for early reading assessment. The effective system contains four stages:
What Is The Role Of Assessment In Education
Screening, diagnosis and progress monitoring can be combined within a single assessment system to streamline these steps. The screen can identify who is at risk for reading problems and needs diagnostic tasks to set instructional goals. Progress monitoring can be done several times during the school year to verify if the teaching goals are being met and growth is occurring towards the performance of the result. The summative or outcome assessment can be a standardized reading achievement test based on national norms or a criterion-referenced test based on state standards.
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Where do formative assessments fit into this assessment system? As originally conceived, the designers reflected the learning progress that students demonstrated as they acquired a skill in a domain, such as literacy (Heritage, 2010). Teachers can informally assess whether children are learning what they have been taught and can diagnose, reteach and assess progress throughout the year. In this sense, formatives consist of teacher observations, quizzes, or curriculum-based tests such as end-of-unit tests whose ratings or scores can be used for classroom instruction.
However, the meaning of the designers changed with the emphasis on students’ proficiency in the state standards-based test. For many educators, the benchmarks have become synonymous with benchmark assessments that indicate whether children are proficient in state standards. For example, if a grade 1 reading standard is to decode words with italic endings, an assessment item might be reading the word
. However, just because the student reads the word correctly does not guarantee later proficiency on the benchmark test. First, more than 10 items are usually needed to ensure reliable scores. Second, mastery at the item level does not guarantee mastery of the standard. be able to read
. Knowledge of spelling rules, more complex sound spelling patterns, and other inflectional endings is required to increase the probability of being proficient in the standard in the outcome assessment. Finally, scoring proficient or not on a benchmark test does not provide instructional guidance for students well below grade level standards, as is often the case for English learners or students with disabilities, or for students performing above grade level. Using formative assessments that can accommodate a wide range of abilities are best for those populations of students (Forman, Espinosa, Jackson, & Wu, 2016). Thus, formative assessments fit best into the progress monitoring component of an effective system if they utilize the skills the teacher teaches for the diverse range of abilities of the students in the classroom.
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An effective assessment system must consist of valid measures to accurately predict reading proficiency. The structures that predict success in reading are well known (Castles, Rastle, & Nation, 2018): phonological awareness, name letter and sound knowledge, efficient decoding and encoding, vocabulary and grammar knowledge, and comprehension strategy. The teaching methods for teaching children from these structures are also well known (Foorman, Beyler, et al., 2016). The challenge in an assessment system is to cover these critical constructs well and in sufficient depth that they predict the increasing complexity of text used to measure reading comprehension. Assessment in context is a holistic assessment of a child which is key to providing sufficient and appropriate information to help the child cope and learn in school. Each student is an individual who brings with him not only the academic needs that need to be addressed but more than that, his emotional capacity or lack thereof. This information will be useful tools for all form and subject teachers not only in preparation for a differentiated lesson for the subject but also to address the child in the style that best suits him.
Balance summative and formative assessments to ensure that while students are assessed according to their level, there is enough of a summative component to help them measure themselves against their peers and the expected level of competence that students should demonstrate in each. Combine their education and prepare them in the end for the expectations of employment or further education.
Summative assessments also help ensure fairness in the assessment system when considering students for student awards, ISC selections and progression to ITE. In general, students are assessed in a more formative way because they join with very diverse starting points and to help them build their confidence and address their gaps.
In addition, continuous formative assessment is also used to give specific feedback to students about their progress and areas of weakness. The information is also used as feedback for the curriculum review. For the formative assessments to be effective, they must be differentiated based on the students’ ability and what they have learned in terms of pedagogy and content. Assessment is a measurable process in terms of knowledge, skills, beliefs and attitudes. Evaluation as a process involves arriving at an evaluation process that is measurable, objective and achievable. In the learning process, assessment takes both curricular and extracurricular activities aimed at producing a well-rounded student.
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Educational evaluation takes two distinct categories. Most often, these are summaries or designers. A summative assessment is done at the end of a course or academic term and is mainly aimed at awarding a grade or as a means of assessing the students’ progress so that they can continue to the next level. On the other hand, formative assessment is carried out throughout the learning process and it helps the learning process by measuring the students’ understanding and ability in the content of the subject.
Formal assessment takes a standardized format, this type of assessment is mathematically calculated, calculated and analyzed to give accurate data of the assessment, and takes the form of percentile scores and standard scores.
In a formal assessment, the teacher gives all students a test on a similar topic. Most often, this is done in reading and writing tests. The purpose of the formal assessment is to systematically determine and evaluate each student’s response to the subject in relation to the instructions given. This allows for flexibility in terms of learner response.
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Formal assessment is useful in the classroom environment, as the teacher is able to formulate a non-level test to determine the student’s progress along the learning progression. A formal assessment essentially allows the teacher, parents and administrators two points of comparison; The rate of student growth over time and the level of student performance (Sweet, 1993).
On the other hand, informal assessment is part of the authentic assessment. This takes various forms from common classroom activities such as assignments, literature discussion groups and essays to more dynamic forms of assessment such as experiments, personal projects, performances and demonstrations. Unlike formal assessment where data is easily calculated, informal assessment calls for teachers to create a checklist to record their observations and measure them to assign grades.
According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, (2004), informal assessment in education allows teachers to be able to compare or correct student performance in this view, some students are not very good at writing essays, but they are good at giving a presentation. . Informal assessment is open and flexible in a way that it can be made formal if the teacher gives guidelines and criteria for the subject matter.
Analyst standardized tests are a fair and objective means of measuring student performance. Standardized tests allow accountability for both the students and the teacher in their performance. In testing students’ literacy strengths, standardized tests are helpful to teachers because they are able to formulate tests based on the data available from previous formal assessments. These allow teachers to highlight learner performance.
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However, some people think that standardized tests are biased by measuring students on a particular topic of an entire learning process when it should focus on each student’s area of interest and intellect. Standardized tests should not focus only on classroom academics, but should have a general knowledge aspect. (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009)
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