What Did The Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor – From its food to its anime to cars to video games, Japanese culture is a part of everyday American life today. However, in 1941, the idea of so much Japanese influence on our daily lives would have been unimaginable, especially after the events. Pearl Harbor that Sunday morning in December.
At 7:55 a.m. local time, the Japanese military launched its fateful surprise attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
What Did The Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor
The two-wave attack staggered for an hour and 15 minutes. These events were forever eclipsed in the words of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt as “a day of infamy.”
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While most of the camp was still asleep, the Japanese military launched a force of 200 aircraft from six different aircraft carriers they had stationed in the Pacific. This was to be the first wave of what the Imperial Japanese Navy called “Operation Hawaii” as we know it as the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Pearl Harbor was the result of a meticulously crafted plan intended to severely cripple the US naval forces so that the nation could not recover. This was essential to the plans of the Japanese Empire at the time. Without fear of American intervention on the high seas, the Japanese could begin their conquest of Southeast Asia.
Between their two air raids, Japanese forces damaged 16 US Navy ships and completely destroyed two battleships and one support ship.
The surprise nature of the attack resulted in heavy casualties. 2,403 Americans were killed and another 1,178 wounded in the surprise airstrike. More than half of the dead were soldiers aboard the USS
Pearl Harbor: The Attack, 7 December 1941
Pearl Harbor survives just below the water, and a monument above the ship’s grave remembers all the Americans who died in the attack.
World War II poster, “Avenging Pearl Harbor: Our Bullets Will Do It,” ca. 1942-1943. (National Archives Identification Number 534787)
While American losses were high, the Japanese lost only 29 aircraft, a small fraction of the more than 350 aircraft that comprised both waves of the attack. During the attack, fifty-five Japanese airmen and nine submariners were killed; After the smoke cleared, one naval officer who survived the raid became the first prisoner of war captured by the United States in World War II.
As devastating as the attack on Pearl Harbor was, it was not entirely successful on the Japanese front. Although the Japanese forces managed to surprise the Americans, they failed to destroy the US fleet as much as they had hoped.
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Despite elaborate planning, they were unable to locate the three US aircraft carriers of the Pacific Fleet outside the harbor on 7 December. Thanks to this, the Navy’s aircraft carrier force remained completely intact.
Also, the Japanese did not destroy the major oil storage facilities at Pearl Harbor, leaving many resources for the Navy to use in the coming war.
On December 8, President Roosevelt declared the previous morning “a day of infamy” as he urged a joint session of Congress to declare war.
The tragedy at Pearl Harbor has angered the nation and calmed much of the isolationist sentiment that had kept the country away from the conflict for the past two years.
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The impressive industrial capacity of the United States allowed for a remarkably quick recovery to confront Japan on the Pacific front.
The National Archives is commemorating the 75th anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor by exhibiting the Senate transcript of FDR’s Day of Infamy address on display in the East Rotunda from November 10, 2016 to January 4, 2017. Gallery.
12/8/1941, Annotated Draft of Message to Congress Requesting a Declaration of War Against Japan. (National Archives Identifier 595426)
Abraham lincoln american history archives conference on the civil war congress225 constitutional convention constitution date civil war discovery eisenhower fdr exhibits franklin d. JFK John F. Roosevelt after the arrival of George Washington as a guest. kennedy lbj national record building the national record nixon nprc odd history photo caption match pieces of history presidential libraries presidential blog magazine random history ronald reagan slavery us history strange us history white house women’s history month world war i world war ii wwii pearl of hawaii islands The Japanese attack on the harbor on December 7, 1941 marked the United States’ official entry into World War II.
Pdf) Why Did Japan Attack Pearl Harbor?
In the 1930s, Japan, which had already annexed Korea in 1910, sought to further expand its empire, particularly to obtain natural resources. In 1931, the Japanese invaded Manchuria, a small resource-rich province in northern China, and established a puppet state called Manchukuo. In 1937, Japan invaded the rest of China and by some estimates as many as 300,000 people died in the infamous Nanking Massacre. By the end of World War II, China would lose 14 million people.
Western powers were distressed by Japanese expansion, especially because it violated the “open door” policy supported by the League of Nations (a precursor to the United Nations), which had been in place to ensure equal trade opportunities with China. The League of Nations reprimanded Japan, but this did nothing to stop its expansion.
Because Japan had limited natural resources, 55.4% of its imports at the time came from the United States (Rhodes 39). Beginning in 1937, the United States began embargoing supplies of oil, steel, and scrap metal. Japanese aircraft were sunk in December of the same year
, an American gunboat, on the Yangtze River, kills three Americans. Although Japan called it a mistake and paid reparations, it further fueled sympathy for China and anger at Japan in the United States.
The Attack On Pearl Harbor: December 7, 1941
In 1940, Japan became part of the Axis alliance with Germany and Italy and acquired parts of French Indochina (modern Vietnam) with the permission of the Vichy government, the puppet state created after the fall of France. In response, the United States imposed a total embargo on all trade with Japan. President Roosevelt also moved the majority of the US Pacific Fleet from the West Coast to Pearl Harbor.
The ban created a dilemma for Japan. The Japanese relied on American resources to fuel their war effort, eventually concluding that they needed to conquer the resource-rich territories of Southeast Asia to continue. In July 1941, colonies controlled by Western powers such as Japan, India, Singapore, the Dutch East Indies and the American-ruled Philippines moved into southern Indochina. Japan knew that this move risked war with the United States.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was the brainchild of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the head of the Japanese Combined Fleet, who argued that it would deal “a fatal blow to the enemy fleet” (Rhodes 392). In October 1941, the attack was approved by the Japanese Naval General Staff. The Japanese fleet, commanded by Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, included six aircraft carriers, 24 support ships, and a fleet of submarines.
The US was expecting an attack. Negotiations to end Japanese expansion, especially since the beginning of the American trade embargo, have not brought results. A few hours before the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Admiral Husband Kimmel, commander of the US Pacific Fleet, received a message from the Navy: “This dispatch is to be regarded as a warning of war. Negotiations with Japan to stabilize the situation in the Pacific region have stalled and an aggressive move by Japan is expected in the coming days. “Preparing an appropriate defense deployment to accomplish assigned tasks” (390). However, the message did not mention Pearl Harbor as a potential attack site, rather because the United States was anticipating an attack on the Philippines.
What Made The Japanese Attack On Pearl Harbor So Devastating? This Ordnance
The first sign of the Japanese fleet’s drive toward Pearl Harbor came at 7:00 a.m. on December 7, when two U.S. Army privateers on the Hawaiian island of Oahu were barely able to disable a mobile radar station they had been manning from 4 p.m. 00 am A slight disturbance on the screen interrupted their actions – a large but indistinct light that appeared to the men from 50 planes seemed to be moving towards the island. Confused, one private contacted the island-wide information center and reached an Army lieutenant who assured them that the lights were simply a group of American B-17s. The lieutenant heard Hawaiian music playing on the radio that morning, usually a signal indicating an American aircraft approaching Hawaii, and decided that the spot on the radar oscillating screen must be the incoming fleet.
Careful Japanese precautions and elaborate planning allowed the attack on Pearl Harbor to remain completely undetected by US intelligence. About two weeks before the attack, Japanese warships and destroyers had picked up 43 fighters, 51 dive bombers, 49 high-level bombers, and 40 torpedo planes from six carriers floating 200 miles north of Pearl Harbor. To the surprise of the Americans, the plane had traveled in complete radio silence.
7:58 AM, Ford Island Command Center
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