Vulnerable Populations And Fire Insurance Accessibility

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Vulnerable Populations And Fire Insurance Accessibility

Vulnerable Populations And Fire Insurance Accessibility

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By Myo Myo Khine Myo Myo Khine Scilit Google Scholar and Uma Langkulsen Uma Langkulsen Scilit Google Scholar *

Received: 8 November 2022 / Revised: 8 February 2023 / Accepted: 11 February 2023 / Published: 15 February 2023

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Climate change poses numerous threats to human life, including physical and mental health, the environment, housing, food security and economic development. People who already experience multidimensional poverty with inequality in social, political, economic, historical and environmental contexts are most vulnerable to these effects. The study aims to identify the role of climate change in increasing multidimensional inequalities among vulnerable populations and to analyze the strengths and limitations of South Africa’s National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy. A systematic review was applied and literature from Google, Google Scholar and PubMed as well as relevant gray literature from 2014–2022 were examined. Of the 854 sources identified, 24 were included in the review. Climate change has exacerbated multidimensional inequalities among vulnerable populations in South Africa. Although the National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has paid attention to health issues and the needs of vulnerable groups, adaptation measures seem to focus less on mental and occupational health. Climate change may play an important role in increasing multidimensional inequalities and exacerbating health impacts among vulnerable populations. For an inclusive and sustainable reduction of inequalities and vulnerabilities to climate change impacts, community-based health and social services should be strengthened among vulnerable populations.

Poverty is multifaceted and includes more than the insufficiency of wealth, income and capital to sustain long-term life. Food insecurity, lack of access to quality education and other needs, lack of social support and prejudice, and non-participation in decision-making are all examples of poverty. In 2017, 9.2% of the world’s population, those earning less than US$1.9 per day, lived below the international poverty line [1]. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic threatened long-term poverty reduction and triggered an economic crisis with extreme consequences. Without adequate responses, the combined effects of the pandemic, economic crisis and climate change would have detrimental effects on humans and increase long-term economic costs [1]. Before the pandemic, about 10% of the world’s population lived below the poverty line, unable to meet even necessities such as access to health care, water and sanitation, and education [2].

Climate change, which potentially exposes people to pandemics and epidemics, is intrinsically linked to poverty. Scientific evidence shows that the global average temperature is rising rapidly as a result of excessive greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, the effects of climate change are being felt worldwide and are being exacerbated by frequent intense and extreme weather events. Climate change affects human life in a number of ways, and those living in poverty are disproportionately affected. About 79% of the world’s poor live in rural areas and rely on climate-sensitive environmental assets such as lakes, forests and oceans. livelihood [1]. Globally, 51.6 million people are struggling to cope with the effects of floods, droughts and storms, while also trying to control the COVID-19 pandemic and cope with its effects [3]. Anthropogenic climate change is impacting 80% of the world’s land masses, under which 85% of people live. Compared to high-income countries, low-income countries have significantly more distributed impacts [4].

Vulnerable Populations And Fire Insurance Accessibility

With the ratification of the Paris Agreement, many countries have set their own targets, namely Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. They have also devised strategies and policies aimed at mitigating the impacts of climate change and the resulting inequalities, while improving health and socio-economic outcomes. However, there are still large gaps in meeting climate targets and inequalities persist as a result of the failure of the Paris Agreement to make targets mandatory, as well as country policies that do not take into account the interconnectedness of the various dimensions affecting social determinants. of the individual’s health outcome [5].

The Affluence–vulnerability Interface: Intersecting Scales Of Risk, Privilege And Disaster

South Africa has one of the highest levels of extreme poverty and inequality in the world, making the country’s population vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The combined effects of political, geographic and social factors rank it 92nd out of 181 countries in terms of its vulnerability to the effects of climate change [6]. In addition, the country is facing significant impacts of climate change caused especially by higher temperatures and decreasing rainfall. Existing vulnerabilities to natural disasters such as severe storms, floods and droughts are likely to worsen. Environmental changes in South Africa are creating adverse effects on many factors, air quality, heat, weather, food security and disease burden. In 2015, 4% of deaths were attributed to air pollution. In addition, food security is at risk as crop yields are expected to decline across the country, accompanied by livestock shortages [7], exposing approximately 25% of the country’s population to food insecurity [6]. In addition, climate change has a significant impact on water resources, which increases disproportionate health risks for rural communities and vulnerable populations, including the poor, women, children, marginalized ethnic groups, migrants and internally displaced people. displaced [8]. In South Africa, approximately 300,000 people per year are expected to be vulnerable to malaria by 2050 under a high emission scenario [9].

Strategies to deal with climate change are becoming critical globally. In South Africa, adaptations to the impacts of climate change also support integrated actions to reduce poverty and inequality. The country has integrated climate change strategies with this development model. Water resources, land management, agriculture and health are critical strategic focus areas for environmental sustainability [9]. South Africa’s actions and responses could provide gaps and key points from which other countries can learn, based on their geographic location, specific impact areas and level of climate risk.

Climate change is a global health issue and related social determinants such as health, education and food security are adversely affected, with the poor bearing the brunt of the combined impacts. As a result, if countries do not have resilient and inclusive strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation, many interconnected dimensions of climate change, such as health, poverty, hunger and gender equality, will be put at risk. risk, further widening the inequality gap between population groups in the world and the long-term implications for vulnerable populations will be enormous. Thus perpetuating a vicious cycle of poverty with reduced coping skills. Along with global climate change trends, South Africa is a unique setting to study issues related to climate change and analyze national government adaptation strategies as well as the consequences, as the country has one of the highest levels of socio-economic inequalities and health inequalities in the world.

Therefore, assessing the role of climate change and how it contributes to multidimensional inequalities between populations and identifying the strengths and limitations of the national response to climate change is critical to identifying the gaps and relevance of answers, in addition to the health impacts of climate change. vulnerable populations. The outcome of this study will be useful to support government agencies, environmental activists and researchers in developing comprehensive and resilient climate change adaptation strategies that will enhance the health and social well-being of vulnerable populations.

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Climate change trends vary in different parts of the world due to their geographic location and uneven production of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the results are evenly distributed around the world, regardless of where the emissions originate. Furthermore, climate change vulnerability is influenced by poverty, which is increasingly recognized as a dynamic and multidimensional condition shaped by historical conditions and by the interaction of individual and community characteristics and broader social, economic, political and environmental factors [10 ] . Changes in climate variability and trends are a growing concern that are likely to exacerbate it

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