Role Of Community Health Nurse In Ebola – Biological risk in Italian prisons: from the management of COVID-19 to the development of a standardized model for emergency response
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Role Of Community Health Nurse In Ebola
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Ebola Patients Coming To The Us: How Safe Are We?
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Providing On-site Laboratory and Biosecurity Training During the Ebola Outbreak in West Africa: Supporting Better Preparedness for Future Health Emergencies
Establishing Mental Health And Psychosocial Support Services During The Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak In Sierra Leone
By Mostafa Bentahir Mostafa Bentahir Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Mamadou Diouldé Barry Mamadou Diouldé Barry Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, Kekoura Koulemou Kekoura Koulemou Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3, † † and Gala-Lucci Jean-Lucci Preprints. org Google Scholar 1, *
Center for Applied Molecular Technologies (CTMA), Institute for Clinical and Experimental Research, Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrates 54-55, B1.54.01, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium
Received: August 4, 2022 / Modified: September 9, 2022 / Accepted: September 9, 2022 / Published: September 14, 2022
The Biological Light Field Laboratory for Emergencies (B-LiFE) is a box-based modular laboratory capable of rapid deployment in the event of an uncontrolled outbreak of an infectious disease. During the 2014-2015 West African Ebola outbreak, this tent laboratory provided diagnostic support to the N’Zerekore Ebola Treatment Center (ETC) in Guinea for three months. One of the objectives of the deployment of B-LiFE was to contribute as much as possible to national capacity building by training local scientists. Two Guinean biologists were selected from 50 candidate trainees for their basic biological knowledge and laboratory skills and were integrated into the team through “in-time training” (JiTT), which helps biologists acquire knowledge and laboratory skills beyond their expertise. . The JiTT program was carried out according to standard laboratory procedures in accordance with international biosafety regulations adapted to field conditions. Controlled acquisition of field-laboratory experiments focused primarily on biochemical testing and quantification of Ebola virus load using routine PCR-based detection including the Biofire FilmArray
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System (BFA) is a not-yet-validated automated test for the diagnostic testing of Ebola virus disease during deployment of B-LiFE. During JiTT, two biologists were closely involved in all laboratory activities, including BFA verification and biosafety procedures. At the same time, this successful JiTT enhanced B-LiFE’s operational capabilities in the field and contributed to national capacity building. During the B-LiFE mission, post-training evaluations and contacts were organized to assess the evolution and technical skills acquired by the two researchers. At the end of the B-LiFE mission, both biologists entered additional programs to prevent the spread of the epidemic in Africa. These results show that during infectious disease outbreaks or major crises, the JiTT approach can rapidly expand access to critical diagnostic tests and train local staff to do so.
Outbreaks are unpredictable and often fatal . Despite improvements in public health worldwide over the past few decades, the emergence of new pathogenic agents with pandemic potential is expected to increase, favored by factors such as global warming, increased economic activity, global movement of people and goods, and high-density cities. living In addition, deforestation exposes people to animals that act as new pathogen vectors, and armed conflicts cause displacement of civilian populations, both of which create local health problems with subsequent increases in the incidence and spread of infectious diseases [ 2 , 3 ]. .
National health workers, including laboratory workers, must be properly trained to respond effectively to emerging outbreaks; therefore, their early exposure makes them the first victims in the context of inadequate healthcare and laboratory infrastructure, including lack of training, information and protective equipment [4, 5]. In almost all past outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (EVD), the mortality rate among healthcare workers with documented infections was higher than among non-healthcare workers . Moreover, outbreaks of sudden onset undoubtedly increase the burden on countries that already lack diagnostic capacity . Accordingly, “full-time training” (JiTT) is increasingly being offered to provide specific information, guidance and instruction that is urgently needed but often cannot be completed in time. JiTT appears to be a cost-effective, cost-effective solution to rapidly equip medical and laboratory workers with new knowledge and skills during deadly outbreaks, as recently demonstrated by the response to the COVID-19 pandemic [8, 9].
Pathogen identification is a key component of a successful outbreak response, making diagnostic testing an urgent national capacity-building issue. To this end, training on the use of new diagnostic tests is part of the global JiTT for timely emergency response. Providing diagnostic support and prompt training of biologists to perform these assays correctly and safely is indispensable for low- and middle-income countries . Automated diagnostic assay platforms are typically used for point-of-care (POC) or near-POC testing. Their on-site use and rapid turnaround times are considered game-changers when an epidemic overwhelms weakened or disrupted health services and/or demand for critical molecular diagnostics exceeds existing national capacity [ 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ]. BioFire FilmArray
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The BioThreat-E (BFA) test is one of several automated multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests proposed for syndrome-based, disease-specific diagnosis and for EVD diagnostic testing during the 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak in the West. Africa [15, 16, 17]. However, at that time BFA was new, not yet approved, and its application in the lab tent had not been seen.
B-LiFE is a box-based modular laboratory tent that can be deployed quickly under field conditions during emergencies such as uncontrolled disease outbreaks [ 18 , 19 , 20 ]. The use of B-LiFE can be activated through a bilateral agreement with the host country, the European Civil Protection Mechanism (EUCPM) or the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network – World Health Organization (WHO-GOARN). A deployable laboratory has the ability to integrate molecular diagnostic services [21, 22], mass screening , satellite communication, local Internet connectivity, and data management and transmission through a laboratory information management system (LIMS) . ]. The B-LiFE capabilities result from the continuous development of the Center for Applied Molecular Technologies of the Université catholique de Louvain.
This paper reviews the contribution of B-LiFE to JiTT as EVD diagnostic support to the N’Zerekore Ebola Treatment Center (ETC) during its operational deployment in Guinea from December 2014 to March 2015, and JiTT’s national capacity highlights the potential role it can play. building in response to outbreaks of infectious diseases.
The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in several West African countries, including Guinea, was massive and unprecedented in terms of mortality and duration. Our mobile laboratory deployed in response to this health crisis is organized with the patronage and support of national and European agencies, including DG ECHO (European Commission DG Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations) and ESA (European Space Agency). This action was also carried out in close cooperation with WHO. However, this outbreak showed how difficult it was, and still is today, to organize the logistics of deploying a mobile laboratory overseas. The EU Civil Protection Mechanism (UCPM) was still in its early stages of development. As a result, we needed the approval of several Belgian ministries for this deployment (the support of the Belgian armed forces for air transport; the approval of the Ministry of the Interior, which oversees the activities of the Belgian civil defense, whose members supported our deployment site and the Ministry of Health). Obtaining permission from all these authorities, as well as answering numerous questions about security guarantees in the proposed location of the ML, took several months of intense and lengthy discussions. Despite being ready, the B-LiFE team was unable to deploy until December 2014. The deployment was carried out with the logistical support of B-FAST (Belgian First Aid and Support Team). The mission ended in N’Zerekore and Guinea when the outbreak ended in March 2015. The mission continued in N’Zerekore and Guinea until the end of the outbreak in March 2015.
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B-LiFE is located near the forested area of Conakry, Guinea