Explain The Japanese Attack On Pearl Harbor

Explain The Japanese Attack On Pearl Harbor – History » World War II » Pearl Harbor » Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor? A comprehensive analysis

More than 75 years later, the question remains for students of World War II history: Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?

Explain The Japanese Attack On Pearl Harbor

Explain The Japanese Attack On Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor is considered the most successful military surprise attack in the early years of combined naval/air warfare. On December 7, 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked the US Navy base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 led directly to America’s entry into World War II, which resulted in the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a disaster for the Japanese. The Japanese managed to damage about 20 American naval ships, among which they killed 8 large warships, 200 aircraft and more than 2,000 Americans, but why did the Japanese attack America in the first place? And what specifically were they trying to achieve by attacking Pearl Harbor?

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The United States and Japan had been butting heads for decades and it was inevitable that things would eventually end in war. Imperial Japan was determined to expand into China to solve its demographic and economic problems and capture the Chinese import market. When Japan decided to declare war on China in 1937, America strongly opposed this aggression and responded with trade embargoes and economic sanctions. In particular, the oil embargo that the US arranged with Britain and the Netherlands was a thorn in the side for Japan, which imports 90% of its oil. Without oil, the Japanese military could not function and the entire war effort would come to an end. After months of negotiations between Washington and Tokyo, with no resolution, Japan decided to strike first.

As war was inevitable, Japan’s only chance was the element of surprise and an early destruction of the American navy. Japan wanted to go to the Dutch East Indies and Malaya to conquer areas that could provide important natural resources such as oil and rubber. Having destroyed a large part of the American fleet, they hoped to conquer the Philippines and Malaya while America was still recovering from its losses – the same time the Pearl Harbor attacks began.

Back to my main question: Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor? Ultimately, Japan hoped that the US would concede defeat and that Japan could build a fortress that stretched across the entire Pacific Rim.

Roosevelt expected an attack by the Japanese, but conspiracy theories claiming that he knew they were going to attack Pearl Harbor have been dismissed by many scholars. The government expected Japan to attack American targets in Thailand or the Dutch East Indies to strike a target closer to home. On December 4, 1941, the Chicago Tribune published a secret war plan, “Rainbow Penn,” in which the War Department prepared for war with Japan.

Pearl Harbor Bombed

The day before the death of Sarah Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt’s mother, the State Department denied Japanese Prime Minister Konoyo’s urgent request for a private meeting with Roosevelt and convinced the Japanese to begin serious plans for the invasion.

At a cabinet meeting on September 6, 1941, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was told to attack unless Kouni reached peace terms with the United States, which included a revolution at home, an uprising in Korea, or It did not revive Chinese morale. Hirohito was shot twice, once by a Japanese communist, once by a Korean nationalist. Two of the best cabinet men were killed or wounded because they were seen as too convenient for foreigners who wanted to colonize Japan or reduce a nation that had never lost a war in modern times to a third-rate powerhouse. Cuneo himself was threatened with assassination if he granted too many concessions, and serious attempts were being made to overthrow the empire in favor of his brother or his son. Hirohito knew that his family could be exterminated or marginalized like the Romanovs themselves, just as the Japanese themselves had done to the Korean royal family if he acceded to a demand that the Japanese considered not only blasphemous but insane.

Yamamoto, who spoke English fluently, had studied at Harvard, and had traveled around the United States in prosperous times, knew that Japan could not conquer, or even defeat, the United States. to give Japan’s grand strategy, if war was not to be avoided, was to inflict enough damage and capture enough territory that the Americans would guarantee Japanese sovereignty in exchange for an armistice and all or most of what Japan would give Korea and perhaps out of Manchuria.

Explain The Japanese Attack On Pearl Harbor

Theoretical plans for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor existed for decades. General Billy Mitchell warned in early 1924 that the next war would be fought with aircraft carriers. US Navy Admiral Harry Yarnell conducted a simulated attack by carrier-based aircraft in 1932 as part of a war game. The naval judges decided that it would sustain significant losses if the attack was real, and the attackers won the war game.

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Yamamoto presented his new emergency plan for the attack on Pearl Harbor on January 7, 1941, less than a month after the British attack on Taranto. Minoru Genda, a Japanese planning genius, called Yamamoto’s initial plan “difficult but not impossible.” More information was needed. In the summer of 1941, Korean patriots who listened to the walls of the Japanese consulate in Honolulu heard rumors of Japanese interest in the harbor and its strength and weakness through Korean servants and loyal Japanese-Americans. to do. From Army and Navy installations in Hawaii.

Roosevelt’s restrictions on Japan’s oil supplies kicked Japan’s plans into high gear. War was now the only alternative to economic exhaustion and political revolution.

In the months following the attack, the United States government issued a memorandum stating, “The Japanese government does not desire or intend or expect immediate armed conflict with the United States. . . . To put it this way, the signatories would give five-to-one odds that Japan and the United States would not be at ‘war’ on or before March 1 (more than 90 days from today, and after that period. (which is predicted by our strategists to be in our best interest so that we have time for more preparations and discounts).

On December 1, 1941, the Emperor met with his Privy Council. “It is now clear that Japan’s claims cannot be met through diplomatic means.” Tojo said. The emperor—perhaps more gun-toting than the great statesmen—asked for a vote. The cabinet unanimously voted for war. Hirohito agreed. The Japanese fleet had been told to attack Pearl Harbor on December 7 unless it was called off at the last minute due to a sudden change in American attitude. Kurosu and Nomura—who had been sincere in their pursuit of peace until receiving the Hole Memo—were told to hold off for the time being. Tojo summarized the situation: Japan, an Asian, African, or South American nation that had modernized rather than colonized, could not accede to America’s demands without corruption at home, rebellion in Korea, and reversion in Manchuria. can “At the moment,” he declared, “our empire stands on the brink of glory or oblivion.”

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This article is part of a larger selection of our posts about the attack on Pearl Harbor. For more information, click here for our comprehensive guide to Pearl Harbor. Pearl Harbor, a United States naval base near Honolulu, Hawaii, was the scene of a devastating surprise attack by Japanese forces on December 7, 1941. Just before 8 a.m. Sunday morning, hundreds of Japanese warplanes descended on the base, where they destroyed or damaged about 20 American naval vessels, including eight battleships and 300 aircraft. In this attack, more than 2,400 Americans, including civilians, were killed and more than 1,000 others were injured. A day after the attack, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan.

The Pearl Harbor attack was a surprise, but Japan and the United States had been heading for war for decades.

The United States was particularly unhappy with Japan’s increasingly belligerent attitude toward China. The Japanese government believed that the only way to solve its economic and demographic problems was to expand its neighboring territory and capture the import market.

Explain The Japanese Attack On Pearl Harbor

For this reason, Japan declared war with China in 1937, which resulted in the Nanking Massacre and other atrocities.

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In response to this invasion, US officials have imposed a battery of economic sanctions and trade sanctions. They argued that without access to money and goods, and especially essential goods like oil, Japan would have to stop its expansionism.

Instead, the embargo made the Japanese even more determined to stand on their own soil. During months of negotiations between Tokyo and Washington, D.C., neither side would budge. It seemed that war was all but inevitable.

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is located near the center of the ocean

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