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Fire Insurance For Homes With Asbestos: Managing Health And Safety Risks
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Claims Under Commercial Property Insurance Policies For Losses Caused By Coronavirus
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By Georgia Frangiudakis Khatib Georgia Frangiudakis Khatib Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Julia Collins Julia Collins Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Pierina Otness Pierina Otness Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, James Good Scilit Google Scilit James Good. Scholar 3, Stacey Tomley Stacey Tomley Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Peter Franklin Peter Franklin Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, 4 and Justine Ross Justine Ross Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1
Entry: July 3, 2023 / Modified: August 2, 2023 / Accepted: August 3, 2023 / Published: August 7, 2023
Understanding Asbestos Management And Removal
(This article belongs to the Special Issue on Sustainable Practices for the Detection, Management and Disposal of Asbestos in the Built Environment)
Asbestos remains ubiquitous in Australia’s built environment. Of the 13 million tons of asbestos products that were installed in previous decades, about 50% remain in place today. Due to the extensive use of asbestos in the past and the increasing age of these products, the potential for exposure to asbestos fibers in the indoor and outdoor environment remains high, even though the actual level of exposure to asbestos is generally very low. Sources of these exposures include the disruption of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in place, for example, during renovations or after natural disasters such as fires, hurricanes, and floods. Our understanding of the risk of asbestos-related disease resulting from long-term exposure to low or background levels is poor. We present an up-to-date review of the risks of asbestos exposure currently affecting different Australian population groups and the settings in which this may manifest. Therefore, there is a need for low-level asbestos monitoring and further research to address whether current exposure monitoring approaches are adequate. In addition, we are committed to proactive asbestos removal to reduce the risk of ongoing asbestos contamination and exposure to deteriorated, damaged or destroyed ACMs, while improving long-term building sustainability as well as the sustainability of limited resources.
Exposure to asbestos causes diseases such as asbestosis, mesothelioma, and cancer of the lung, ovary, and larynx . Historically, the most important source of occupational exposure has been from asbestos mining and manufacturing. However, the presence of asbestos in millions of homes and public and commercial buildings across Australia today means that the workers most at risk of exposure are those who carry out removal, repair, maintenance, renovation and other work in older buildings. they give These include builders, electricians, plumbers and painters. Examples of jobs that involve or are likely to involve asbestos demolition include removing asbestos-containing floor tiles as part of a renovation, cutting or drilling into an asbestos-cement sheet wall, demolishing a structure that contains asbestos, or working on are asbestos cement pipes. .
Previous non-work experience was caused by living with an asbestos worker or living near an asbestos mine or factory. These effects have been consistently associated with morbidity . However, with the progressive restrictions in the 1960s on the mining and production of asbestos and asbestos products, and finally after the ban in late 2003 in Australia, these effects became less common. Home renovators are now the most likely group at risk for non-occupational exposure, as they have little or no training in asbestos handling and removal and are less likely to adopt protective control measures to reduce exposure [4, 5, 6, 7, 8].
Managing The Hidden Danger In Older Homes
Asbestos fibers are also released by general deterioration (weathering) and damage to ACMs, as well as damage from natural disasters such as fires, hurricanes, cyclones and floods. These events can cause short-term growth of airborne fibers, require complex control measures, and are expensive to correct. In some cases, long-term soil pollution remains with asbestos pieces and fiber bundles. Other potential sources of exposure include illegal asbestos dumping, historic fill materials, and waste disposal (see Section 4). Risk of future exposure may arise from imported goods containing asbestos fibers in violation of the import ban.
This article provides an up-to-date review of the risks of asbestos exposure in Australia and the settings in which they may occur. It also reviews current and future approaches to address these risks and identifies knowledge gaps. To achieve this, we reviewed the potential release of asbestos fibers from in situ products, the analytical framework for measuring asbestos exposure, current settings for potential asbestos exposure (including case studies), and the evolution of the national asbestos exposure prevention framework. .
Australia was one of the highest per capita users of asbestos in the world until the 1980s. The use of asbestos products in buildings was discontinued after this time and was banned by the end of 2003, but most of the products in place are very old . As with any building material, ACMs deteriorate as they age. The level of deterioration caused by general aging depends on several factors, including how long the product has been stored. Very low concentrations of asbestos fibers are measured in most urban centers in industrialized countries such as Australia  and asbestos fibers can be found in the lungs of many people who have not had any adverse exposure at work [11, 12]. A simple measure of asbestos consumption has been shown to be associated with asbestos-related disease mortality, including in legacy countries such as Australia, as well as in developing countries that are relatively new users of ACM [ 13 ].
Indoor products are likely to weather at a slower rate than outdoor products, resulting in damage from physical contact (eg, general wear and tear) and building movement (eg, vibration). Renovation activities can temporarily increase the concentration of airborne fibers depending on how carefully they are performed (see Section 4.2). However, asbestos fiber concentrations in the air in buildings where the product is not disturbed are usually not present in measurable quantities or occur at very low levels, such as outdoor surfaces [14, 15, 16].
On The Job: Asbestos In The Workplace: Tradies Face Biggest Health Risk
In a 2008 study of 752 buildings, including schools, universities, public buildings, and homes, conducted over a ten-year period, Lee and Van Orden  found that although the indoor concentration was higher than the outdoor, ACM in place does not lead to an increase in the level of airborne asbestos in the atmosphere of the building approaching the standard level and does not lead to a significant increase in the risk of building residents. The highest indoor concentrations were found on average in schools, which was probably due to the higher activity levels in these buildings .
Aging, damage, and remodeling of asbestos products can increase indoor asbestos fibers in the air or dust, while ventilation and cleaning activities can reduce indoor asbestos fibers. A 2022 study on changes in asbestos fiber concentrations in typical Eastern European buildings found that indoor airborne fiber concentrations are generally low and decrease over time, with ventilation being an important factor in reduction .
Asbestos products placed outdoors (such as exterior siding, siding, and roofing) are more susceptible to weathering and deterioration than indoor asbestos products. Damage to outdoor products can be very noticeable. Cracked and broken ACM walls and wall sheets are common in areas where these products have been used extensively. General subsidence is less obvious, but erosion of the ACM can dislodge cement particles and cause asbestos fibers to separate. Determining the contribution of decaying materials and weathering to urban asbestos contamination is difficult.
The typical atmospheric concentration of asbestos fibers in urban areas is about 0.0001 f/ml, which is ten times higher than in rural areas (far from any specific asbestos sources) . A limiting factor in airborne fiber counts, even for degraded products with visible emissions, is that the debris and fiber bundles are larger than the respirable size fraction (unpublished; Othness and Franklin), i.e., they cannot be measured by currently used air monitoring methods. will not (see section 3). The sources of increased concentrations in cities vary, and although the output of fiber from individual products, even if highly degraded, is minimal, these products in
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